In Clarence's Time - early postcard of the Casa Fontanalba

Written by Helen Blanc-Francard on .

casa fontalba postcard aug1908From Helen Blanc-Francard on 13th August 2015

This post card was up for sale on eBay this week - a misty view of Clarence's recently built villa closed up for the winter with the surrounding slopes freshly cleared of vegetation. Amusingly it was sent exactly one hundred and seven years ago, on 13th August 1908. 

One can imagine that Clarence would have been in residence the day the sender of the card travelled up to Casterino to escape the stifling summer heat of the coast.

On the same day, in newspaper offices in England, France and America two items of sensational news were coming in that would change people's lives for ever - but few may have realised it at the time!  

french postcard wright flightFour days earlier, at a horse race track near Le Mans in France, the Wright Brothers had flown their new Model A flying machine for the first time in public to prove to sceptical european aviators that they had indeed conquered the skies.  Their fragile aircraft had taken flight with Wilbur at the controls and was airborn for only one minute and 45 seconds but Wilbur's ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, among them Louis Bleriot.  By the 12th August the French public were flocking to the field by the thousands as Wilbur flew a series of technically challenging flights, including figure-of-eights, demonstrating his skills as a pilot and the capability of his flying machine, which far surpassed those of all other pioneering aircraft and pilots of the day. The brothers instantly became world-famous.

ford-model-t-assembly-lineOver the ocean in Detroit, another ambition was being realized as the first production model of Henry Ford's Model T automobile rolled off the line on August 12th, 1908. Its maker had announced  "I will build a car for the great multitude. It will be large enough for the family, but small enough for the individual to run and care for. It will be constructed of the best materials, by the best men to be hired, after the simplest designs that modern engineering can devise. But it will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one – and enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of pleasure in God's great open spaces".  He also famously remarked that the Model T was available in any colour you wanted – as long as it was black.

In Clarence's Time - Last Train from Liguria

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

last-train-from-liguriaIf you are fascinated by Bordighera, it's history and the influence of the foreigners, you would enjoy reading Last Train from Liguria by Christine Dwyer Hickey. It's fiction, and it's set in the 1930s i.e. some 20 years after Clarence's time, but the backdrop of Bordighera feels similar to that experienced by Bicknell.

The book is captivating. Joseph O'Connor's review says "This is a big, bold, remarkably assured narrative that roams between 1930s London and Celtic Tiger-era Dublin, cleverly shifting its balance of perspectives and characterisations so that both those places lead inevitably to the fascist-era Italy that is really the novel's main setting. In 1933, Bella Stuart, the introspective daughter of a London surgeon, sets out for the country where Mr Mussolini is busy making the trains run on time. The plan is for her to be tutor to the son of the aristocratic Lami family - "there's a villa in Sicily and a summer house on the Italian riviera", and there is "some German connection, so you'll probably be popping off to Berlin". Fateful words for the whole of Europe, perhaps. Signora Lami turns out to be younger than Bella, her husband much older, a man who has "a face that is ready to die". There is a scene of Tolstoyan poignancy and unearthly beauty where Bella glimpses them bathing. This is a household as strange as it is crustily sumptuous. Its mistress refers to the servants as "frightful primitives". Even the sound made by the crickets seems different, somehow: "harsher and slightly neurotic"."


NEWS - Clarence and the sketch of Turner by the Count d'Orsay in his father's house

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

engraving of Turner by d'Orsay, property of Marcus BicknellI have been researching further the apocryphal story, recounted in the family,  that Clarence would have observed Turner, Landseer, Stansfield, Roberts, Ruskin and other notable artists and writers of the time when they visited Elhanan's home, Carlton House in Herne Hill, now the site of Danecroft Road. A very useful summary of Turner and Elhanan Bicknell is in the Dulwich Society paper by Brian Green of 2014 which I put online (and linked to my last blog posting here) at

This paper is brim full of other useful stories about Elhanan's world and is worth another read. For example "Turner, frequently dined at his father’s house, and objected to having his portrait taken. At one such dinner around Christmas 1845, Count D’Orsay and Sir Edwin Landseer, devised a little plot to defeat the result of this antipathy. Whilst Turner unsuspiciously chatted with a guest over a cup of tea in the drawing-room, D’Orsay placed himself as a screen beside him to hide, when necessary, Landseer, sketching him at full length in pencil on the back of an envelope. Landseer gave what he had done to D’Orsay, who after re-drawing it at home and enlarged the figure to eight inches in height, sold it to J Hogarth, printseller in the Haymarket, for twenty guineas”. Sixteen copies of this print were included in the Bicknell sale at Christie’s in 1863 after Bicknell’s death and I show an image of one of them, above.

When d'Orsay secretly sketched Turner sipping coffee in Elhanan's drawing room in 1845 Clarence was only 3, so if any children observed this little deception they would have been Clarence's elder siblings. He was the youngest of 13 children of Elhanan. I am continuing to hunt down the source of any anecdote about Clarence and the artists in the house especially as they would be useful to Clarence's biographer Valerie Browne Lester.

The Tate Gallery in London lists the d'Orsay engraving, and gives further details, at 

In Clarence's Time - George MacDonald in Bordighera

Written by Susie Bicknell on .

macdonald sitting 1862Clarence Bicknell and George Macdonald:
Figureheads of Society in Bordighera

By Susie Bicknell, February 2015, updated December 2019

Since the publication of Susie Bicknell's paper here in February 2015, new facts came to light during her research for Valerie Lester's book MARVELS: The Life of Clarence Bicknell. The most interesting revelation was that Bicknell had in fact influenced the MacDonalds to come to Bordighera... "In 1879, Clarence had met George and Louisa Macdonald at the religious retreats organised by the influential Lord and Lady Mount Temple at their Broadlands home in Hampshire, England. Clarence corresponded with Louisa and he encouraged and helped them to come to Bordighera."

The 2015 paper can be downloaded in pdf form here.

The 2019 update can be downloaded here.


George MacDonald and Clarence Bicknell both settled in Bordighera in 1878.  George was already an established literary personality with a large family and little money.  Clarence was unknown with no particular vocation except as a priest, a bachelor (which he remained) and with enough private means to support himself.  Within a few years, they had established themselves as pivots of society in Bordighera.  However, it is strange not to know how much contact they had with each other, considering how much they had in common as stalwarts of Bordighera.

They both had stints as priests.  Reacting possibly to his Unitarian upbringing, Clarence, when he left Cambridge, favoured a return to a more Catholic orientated Anglican Church. Ordained in 1866, Clarence was a curate in a tough parish in Walworth, Surrey and then from 1873 spent six years on and off at Stoke on Tern with the rather mysterious “Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit” created by Rowland Corbet which pursued High Church Anglo-Catholicism. But by the late 70s, the Brotherhood must have lost its allure for Clarence, and he travelled considerably, going as far afield as Morocco and possibly New Zealand.  He ended up in Bordighera in 1878 invited by the Fanshawe family and became chaplain to the Anglican church there.

Eighteen years older than Clarence, Scotsman George MacDonald also started with a religious calling. He left Aberdeen to study Congregationalism at Highbury Independent Theological College.  After three years, he became pastor in 1850 at a Congregational Church in Arundel, Sussex.  However, three years later, he was forced to resign, accused of heresy as his sermons became more and more imbued with mysticism.  His parishioners liked him though, for his sincere pastoral care.  He was a striking man, tall with blue eyes, long dark hair, and a long dark beard, who continued to impress with his preaching in Manchester and Bolton.

This work did not provide enough funds to support George’s ever-growing family.  In true Victorian tradition, his adored wife Louisa produced a child nearly every year during the 1850s and they eventually ended up with eleven children, four of whom died. He resigned from the Independent ministry and became a lay member of the Church of England and decided to pursue his literary vocation.  He had started with two poetry books but in 1858, he published “The Phantastes” which was his first success and the first of many fantasy and fairy-tale novels.  He said "I write, not for children, but for the child-like, whether they be of five, or fifty, or seventy-five."  Throughout his life, he also published volumes of sermons and wrote non-fantasy realistic novels on Scottish life.

MacDonald’s reputation became such that he moved in the top literary circles, acquainted with Tennyson, Dickens, Wilkie Collins, Trollope, Ruskin, Lewes, and Thackeray .  A photo exists of MacDonald with this group.  Maybe the photo was taken by Lewis Carroll, a well-known photographer as well as writer of the Alice books.  MacDonald’s children were so enthusiastic when the Alice books were read to them that Carroll was encouraged to present them for publication. What a good decision that was. macdonald family 1872

Image, right: The Macdonald family with Lewis Carroll

MacDonald’s rise to top literary circles had been helped in 1856 when Lady Byron became a patron.  In 1867 he moved into the large house known as “The Retreat” in Hammersmith (later to belong to William Morris after MacDonald’s move to Bordighera). And in 1872 he went on a lecture tour in the States.  He was an influence on Tolkien and C.S. Lewis.

But health-wise, things were not so good in MacDonald’s large family.  The “family attendant” – as MacDonald called tuberculosis - was hovering over them and the decision was taken to find a home on the Italian Riviera.  Queen Victoria, having enjoyed reading his books to her children, had accorded MacDonald a Civil List pension in 1877, and friends clubbed round to help him build a very large house in Bordighera.  While this was being built, a year or two were spent in Nervi (a popular sea resort suburb of Genoa) and Portofino.So in 1878, just as Clarence arrived also, the MacDonalds installed themselves in Bordighera where they spent the winter season for the next 20 years.  The curative powers of the local air were not enough to prevent MacDonald’s second eldest daughter dying the year they arrived.  Another three were to die, the last was Lilia in 1891, Macdonald’s first born and favourite daughter.

Clarence did not last long as the Anglican Chaplain.  Within a year he had resigned. He gave up active participation in church matters. He asked not to be referred to as “The Rev.” He ceased to wear a dog collar. He was later to say in a letter to a friend, “I fear I have become rather narrow about all church things, having become convinced that the churches do more harm than good & hinder human progress, & look upon the pope, the clergy & the doctrines as a fraud, though not an intentional one.”  But he decided to stay in Bordighera and bought the “Villa Rosa” from the Fanshawe-Walkers.  This large house (for a bachelor) remained his home till he died. It is right next door to the Church (no longer consecrated) and now divided into flats. We do not know if Clarence decorated the Villa’s interior walls as profusely as he did his house in Casterino or if he received as many visitors there as he did at the Casa Fontanalba.  

In the 10 years between 1907 and 1917 that Clarence had visitors to the Casa Fontanalba, over 250 people made their way up the twisty mountain road from St Dalmas de Tende to Casterino. Clarence was usually only there from June till September so having from 15 to as much as over 40 visitors in a season must have kept him and his helpers the Pollinis pretty busy!  Sometimes large families of 5 or 6 would come.  Clarence still fitted in his work on the engravings and regular botanical studies.  Decorating the house itself must have taken some time: would it have been finished for the 19 visitors who came in 1907?  And would visitors have been expected to follow his strict schedule and his vegetarian diet? And did some of them stay the night?

But back in 1880 and no longer occupied by his chaplaincy, Clarence – besides his botanical and archaeological interests – devoted himself to philanthropic projects for the local Italians and animating the British community.

Clarence had literary aspirations too, though of a lighter variety than MacDonald’s. As Peter Bicknell writes: “His delight in playful fantasy has much in common with the nonsense of Edward Lear and Lewis Carroll. He loved puzzles, riddles, jokes, puns and parlour games. For Margaret Berry he made a botanical version of the popular Victorian game of happy Families.”

And Clarence’s fantastical works were wonderfully illustrated. He did a series of albums, one a year, dedicated to his nephew Edward Berry’s wife, Margaret. Peter Bicknell describes one of these albums as follows:

“The last dated 1914 is an elaborate fantasy, The Triumph of the Dandelion in which the flowers compete for the crown of the Beauty Queen of Fontanalba. Page by page each flower presents her claim in enchanting drawings, supported by descriptions of her charms (sometimes medicinal) in prose and in verse (often facetious)”

The “Museo Bicknell” is his great creation. It was opened in 1888 to provide a cultural centre for local history.  Concerts, plays and exhibitions were held there, many of them fund-raisers for local charities. Later an additional library was built.  (For more detail see With a British population in this period of between 5000 and 7000, there was no shortage of potential audiences.

Meanwhile, MacDonald’s large home became a cultural centre in itself. This excerpt from Angela R. Barone’s 1990 PhD thesis “The Oak Tree and the Olive Tree:  The True Dream of Eva Gore-Booth” gives a vivid description of life there:
“Casa Coraggio, the name given to the construction in Bordighera, was linked with the family motto: "Corage! God mend all" (the imperfect spelling is deliberate, as the motto is an anagram of George MacDonald). The house was fenced by a thick row of trees and bushes, its outside walls were covered with ivy and evergreen creepers. Inside, there were numerous large rooms, furnished with disparate items and with the walls painted in vivid colours. In the large and luminous kitchen Louisa (his wife) used to cook in large quantity for her numerous family and guests - the door of Casa Coraggio was constantly open to the local villagers as well as to friends, acquaintances, unknown guests coming from Northern Europe to meet the artist philanthropist or to recover their health in the sunny Italian weather and to avail of the generosity of George MacDonald.

“In a large store-room one could find all sorts of costumes, theatrical props and disparate objects. In the sitting-room of over 130 square metres, the MacDonalds organised concerts, mainly directed by Louisa, lectures and oratorios, held by George, tableaux vivants and plays, staged and acted by the whole family, and fancy-dress balls and charity parties for the local community. George and Louisa, with their children, lived their most happy days in Casa Coraggio: they made an ecumenical meeting-point of their own house in Italy, sharing with the others whatever was in their possession and doing everything in their power to help the villagers who had so generously accepted them in their community.”

macdonald living room
Image, right. A part of the MacDonald’s enormous living room where plays, lectures and all manner of activities took place.


On Wednesday afternoons MacDonald gave readings of Shakespeare and Dante.  A local fisherman or florist might find himself next to an English aristocrat such as Lord Mount-Temple who wrote in his memoires;

“That house, Coraggio, is the very heart of Bordighera, the rich core of it, always raying out to all around, and gathering them to itself”.  
Some of the English community were apparently a bit shocked by the goings-on at this house with lots of Italian children around over Christmas and the eclectic gatherings that took place.

In 1896 Eva Gore-Booth and Gertrude Roper, both in their mid-twenties and from widely different backgrounds, met and fell in love at the Casa Coraggio.  They went on to live together, Eva abandoning her aristocratic upbringing, and  became well-known campaigners for vegetarianism, the abolition of capital punishment,  antivivisection, women’s’ suffrage and pacifism.

The last great event held at the MacDonald’s home was their 50th Wedding Anniversary in 1901.  Louisa died (exhausted one imagines) the next year.  George by then was in a wheelchair and returned to live in Haslemere with his son Greville where he died in 1905.So we wonder if Bicknell and Macdonald frequented each other’s gatherings and events? After all, they lived only 100 yards from each other. They certainly had some similarities: very welcoming, open and caring.  Both helped after the bad 1887 earthquake. MacDonald’s huge living room became an emergency hospital. In 1917, Clarence’s Museum was used for war victims, as was the Casino.  Clarence remarks in a letter to Pelloux in the same year “What a good thing it is to see useless or mischievous places being turned to good account”.

George and Clarence may both have been pivots of Bordighera society, but both also had passionate and time-consuming interests. They were not dilettante ex-pats just wintering on the Riviera. Clarence concentrated on botany, archaeology and Esperanto, MacDonald on his writing (he wrote 20 books while in Bordighera).

But as far as we know, they were not great friends, or even very well acquainted. Why not? Clarence used Robert Falconer MacDonald, one of George’s sons and an architect, to design the Casa Fontanalba, but so far that is the only sign of contact between them. Perhaps it was simply that Clarence was an outdoor person and George an indoor person.


This paper prepared as a research paper for the Clarence Bicknell Association website where many other papers can be found on the downloads page.

The 2015 paper can be downloaded in pdf form here.

The 2019 update can be downloaded here.


© Susie Bicknell 2015 and 2019 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In Clarence's Time - Esperanto Conference 1906

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

immagine160cClarence struggles to get in to the group photo at the 2nd International Esperantist Conference in Geneva, 1906. In the detailed photo he is craning his head round the gentleman with the white collar and formal dark jacket, who in turn is leaning to get out from under the lady's wedding cake hat.

With thanks to Bruna Paoli for the photo.immagine161

NEWS - Clarence's Pendants

Written by Valerie Lester on .

Valerie Browne Lester, author and relation of Clarence Bicknell, is in the Museo Bicknell in Bordighera researching her biography of Clarence Bicknell. This is one of her dispatches from the front line.

strap sancti spiritusA series of large plastic boxes and a bookcase contain Marcus Bicknell's fine collection of works by and about Clarence Bicknell, photographs, and other memorabilia. The strangest item is a leather strap which from which hang the silver medallion of the Societas Sancti Spiritus (the brotherhood to which Clarence belonged when he was at Stoke-on-Tern) and two green pendants. Is it a keychain? Is it a watchchain?

The note written by Margaret Berry that accompanies the strap declares that Clarence brought the jade pendants back from Ceylon, but there's something funny about this. The stones are typical Maori pendants, made from New Zealand greenstone. I double-checked with a New Zealand friend about this and here is what he said:  "No question at all, at least not in regard to the one on the left; it's a classic shape (a slightly stylized war-club in fact). The one on the right isn't familiar to me, but the pendant style and colour of the stone is. Even though I don't recognize the shape, I wouldn't have hesitated to call it greenstone rather than jade."

The pendants are, thus far, the first chip of hard evidence that points to Clarence's legendary trip to the Antipodes. Time and again, those who write about Clarence, including Marcus's uncle Peter Bicknell, mention his trip to New Zealand but do not provide any proof. If he did indeed go there, he must have gone at some point during his year of travels, his lost year, the hiatus between his time in Stoke-on-Trent and his arrival in Bordighera in 1878.

Another tiny clue about a visit by Clarence to the Antipodes surfaced the other day in a letter that Marcus received from Dr. Peter McQuillan of the School of Geography & Environmental Studies at the University of Tasmania. McQuillan says: "I stumbled upon your excellent website on Clarence Bicknell in my attempts to discover something of how his name became attached to one of the most common and conspicuous ants in south eastern Australia: Iridomyrmex bicknelli. . . Do you have any evidence that he may have visited Tasmania? Because this is where the original ant specimens were apparently collected, and it is a common ant to this day in the vicinity of the port at Hobart, the capital city of Tasmania." strap paola bruni

The mind boggles but is not stunned with surprise, at the thought of a large Tasmanian ant named after Clarence Bicknell!

Back to the keychain. The other evening in Bordighera when I was having dinner at the home of the amazingly kind Dr. Bruna Da Paoli, who works in the Museo Bicknell, I happened to notice an item on a small table in her entryway. I took a photo, and I think you'll agree that Bruna's key strap bears a remarkable resemblance to the photo at the top of this page.


Added by Marcus Bicknell 11 September 2017: the following email from Dougal Austin, an expert in this field in New Zealand, confirms that the pendants are from New Zealdn not Ceylon. But we still have no evidence, in 2017, that Clarence went to new Zealand.

"Tēnā koe Marcus, Thank you for your inquiry. The two jade pendants take the shape of typical Māori artefacts: the patu (hand held weapon) and the kapeu (bent ear pendant). The kapeu may have been an actual ear pendant, whereas the patu has been reduced significantly in size in order to make a pendant. The gold attachment at the top of the patu pendant is interesting, the combination of gold and pounamu ‘New Zealand Jade’ pointing to late 19th-early 20th century origin.   I consider both have probably been made by European settler lapidary workshops in the late 19-ealy 20th century, probably mainly for the tourist market, though Māori also sometimes bought and used pendants such as these too. Traditional working of pounamu by Māori had ceased in most areas by 1900AD, so they acquired copies of cultural artefacts from Pākehā or European settler retailers at that time.     The stone is very probably pounamu, commonly called greenstone in New Zealand, and geologically known as nephrite jade. The vivid green of the kapeu pendant is very typical of New Zealand nephrite, though we also get darker colours such as has been used for the patu. I hope this is helpful. 

Heoi anō – Yours Sincerely 

Dougal Austin - Kāti Māmoe,Kāi TahuCurator, Taonga Tūturu 19-20th Century
Museum of New Zealand |Te Papa Tongarewa
Cable Street | PO Box 467 | Wellington 64-4-381 7118 (ddi | ext)
64-4-381 7080 (fax) This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it."

In Clarence's Time - Charles Lowe and Bordighera Tennis

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

Charles Lowe - The philanthropist of BordigheraCharles-Lowe-24996

Charles Lowe lived in Wiltshire for many years but he also spent much of his retirement on the Italian Riviera, where he was just as generous with his donations to good causes - including providing funds for Italy's first tennis courts.

A rare portrait of the self-effacing Lowe hangs to this day in the Bordighera council office.

Few visitors to the little UK village of Rowde, a couple of miles northwest of the Wiltshire town of Devizes, can have any inkling that it has a strong connection with the Italian Riviera. For it was here, in the seaside town of Bordighera, that Charles Henry Lowe, the owner of Rowde Hall, spent the winter months for more than 30 years, largely for the benefit of his health. Such was his gratitude that he poured large amounts of his considerable wealth into projects to improve the amenities in the town. These included a public garden, an Anglican church and its accompanying parsonage, a theatre, land for a cemetery and, remarkably enough, the first set of tennis courts ever to be built in Italy.

Young entrepreneur

Charles Lowe followed his father into the shipping trade, and such was his business acumen that he managed to amass enough of a fortune to enable him to retire from business life at the age of 48. It was 1876, and by this time the English had already discovered the Italian Riviera and migrated there in large numbers. The idea of escaping the rigours of the English weather was appealing to Lowe, whose health was by no means robust, and he decided to join his compatriots in what was by now a sizeable ‘expat’ colony.

He bought an unpretentious property called 'Casa Rossa', which contemporary reports describe as 'hardly more than a cottage'. However, he also bought a considerable area of land to go with it, most of which, in a spirit of pure philanthropy, he gave away to the local community over the following decades.

One year after Wimbledon

One of his first donations was land for the Bordighera Lawn Tennis Club. The game had only taken off in England in 1877, which was when the courts at Wimbledon were opened; the very next year saw the opening of those at Bordighera. Most of the original members were English, and tennis was seen as little more than a way of passing the time until tea at five o'clock. However, the game soon became to be taken more seriously, especially after the First World War, by which time the British population in the town had risen to three thousand and the number of courts used by the Club to 15.

Competitions had previously only been at a social level, but in the 1920s the Club inaugurated two international events: the Vera Cup (for ladies) and the Long Cup, which remained one of the classic Italian tennis events right up to the start of World War Two, although it was not until 1933 that it was won by an Italian, Federico Billour, subsequently a world-famous maker of tennis rackets.

Heyday in the 30s

In the 1930s, the Bordighera Tennis Club was known to be the strongest on the Riviera, even beating clubs as powerful as Monaco.

The international greats of the time came to play there - such stars as Bill Tilden, René Lacoste, Harry Hopman and Henri Cochet. But the golden age ended with the advent of World War Two: the British players who had started it all left forever, the town was repeatedly bombed, and the clubhouse resounded not to the joyful sounds of drives and volleys but to the heavy jackboot tramp, tramp of the occupying Nazis.

War fatigue

A post-war return to the days of glory proved almost impossible. The local council was only able to buy three of the courts, and much of the rest was used for building development.

But the 1960s saw a rebirth, with the construction of a new clubhouse containing all the necessary facilities and an injection of energy into youth coaching. The club organised the Italian Student Championships in 1966, bringing to the fore such future Italian stars as Paolo Bertolucci, Corrado Barazutti, Nicola Pietrangeli and Adriano Pannatta.

Facebook fame

Charles Lowe had also given the land for a public garden in the centre of the town. This is known to this day as 'Giardini Lowe', and so many townsfolk have such happy childhood memories of playing there that it has its own Facebook page. It is the only example of his name being attached to one of his good works: this self-effacing man held no public office other than that of churchwarden at the church in Bordighera.

His lifestyle was austere in comparison to that of those around him - he travelled second class rather than spend large sums on his own comfort. He treated his servants as friends and often referred to them as his 'faithful stewards', even arranging for his Bordighera gardener to come to England so that he could say farewell to him from his deathbed.

It is no wonder then that his obituary in the Devizes & Wiltshire Gazette of 15th April 1909 describes him as 'an admirable type of man in the true sense of the word.'

A century on, Bordighera's website ( describes him as 'generoso benefattore'. He would have been flattered - but surely content.

Tony Burton-Page

Info re Charles Lowe from the Riviera Times, with thanks to Helen Blanc-Francard for bringing it to our attention.


In Clarence's Time - Monet in Bordighera

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

villas-at-bordighera-02 Claude Monet découvrit Bordighera lors d’un voyage itinérant de Paris jusqu’à Gênes en 1883 en compagnie d’Auguste Renoir. Il fût tellement fasciné qu’il voulu y retourner l’année suivante, seul, pour au moins un mois, comme il l’écrivit dans la lettre du 12 janvier 1884, adressée à son galeriste Durand-Ruel : « Très cher Monsieur Durand-Ruel, je veux passer un mois à Bordighera, un des plus beaux endroits que nous avons vus pendant notre voyage. De là-bas, je nourri l’espérance de vous ramener toute une série de nouvelles choses. » La lumière et les couleurs de Bordighera le combleront au point qu’il y demeura plus de trois mois, exécutant dans la petite ville et ses environs 38 tableaux, actuellement présentés à l’exposition de Gênes et reproduits sur cette page.

Un lieu vous étonnera beaucoup : le jardin Moreno, qui déjà à la fin de 1870 était cité, avec enthousiasme, dans les premiers guides touristiques européens. Un jardin avec oliviers, orangers, citronniers, mandariniers, palmiers et plantes rares, qui s'étendait sur près de 80 hectares, de la mer aux collines. Son propriétaire Francesco Moreno - riche industriel et négociant d'huile d'olive et de citron - a été membre de l'une des plus vieilles familles bordigottes, et mourut quelques mois après le départ de Monet. Dans une lettre datée du 5 Février 1884 à Alice Hoschedé, Monet écrit: «Un jardin comme ça, c'est indescriptible, c’est pure magie, toutes les plantes du monde poussent là dans le pays, et sans paraître soignées. C’est est un enchevêtrement de palmiers de toutes sortes, de chaque espèces d'oranges et de mandarines ». Aujourd'hui, ce lieu survit dans les jardins de la Villa Palmizi, la Villa Dodge - l'ancienne voie romaine - et dans celui de la Villa Mariani, derrière le centre historique.

A l'occasion de l'exposition à Gênes, qui veut aller à Bordighera peut retracer les «chemins de Monet", voir les lieux où l'artiste français à placé son chevalet et a fait ses chefs-d'œuvre, peut toucher les oliviers peints par lui, en voyant la villa Etelinda encore intacte, autrefois Villa Bishoffsheim, immortalisée dans deux de ses tableaux, des vues de la Côte d'Azur et Vintimille, Bordighera et des vues des collines et l'ancien "Tour Mostaccini" . Une expérience unique. Un plongeon dans la beauté et l'histoire.

You can walk in the footsteps of Monet following these indications:

Article fom the website of Hotel Firenze, with thanks to Helen Blanc-Francard for forwarding it.

NEWS - An Early Influence On Clarence Bicknell: The Rev. Rowland William Corbet (1839-1919)

Written by Valerie Lester on .

By Valerie Browne Lester, researching a new biography of Clarence Bicknell, 25 January 2015


Clarence Bicknell entered Trinity College, Cambridge, when he was 19. Recently orphaned — his father Elhanan died that very year and his mother Lucinda had died when he was 9 years old — he was sorely in need of supportive friends and role models.

Clarence had been brought up in his father’s Unitarian faith, a tolerant, open-minded faith that was an offshoot of the Protestant Reformation. It eschewed ritual and preached religious freedom, the oneness of God, and the unity of creation. It was condemned by the mainstream Church of England, and its members were often persecuted and referred to as “Dissenters.” When Clarence arrived at Cambridge, he drifted away from Unitarianism and fell under the influence of members of the Oxford Movement, whose principles were in direct opposition to the Unitarians’. They wanted to return the Anglican church to its pre-Reformation, Catholic roots. The zeal of its adherents attracted Clarence, and he soon joined the movement, finding solidarity with its members and a sense of purpose. Rowland Corbet, two years ahead of Clarence at Trinity, was the member of the Oxford Movement at Cambridge to have the greatest influence on him, and would be a crowland corbet 1862entral figure in Clarence’s life in the years to come.

Clarence’s interest in theology was also enhanced by conversations with his tutor at Trinity, Joseph Barber Lightfoot, arguably the greatest Bible scholar of his day, who later became Bishop of Durham. Soon after his arrival at Cambridge, Clarence had himself christened in the Church of England, firmly turning away from his father’s Unitarianism.

As soon as he was awarded his B.A. in mathematics, Clarence took the first steps towards becoming an Anglican priest. In 1866 he was ordained a deacon in the Church of England and was soon appointed as a curate of St. Paul’s, Walworth, Surrey, along with two of his friends from Trinity. The three young men, the vicar’s “three gallants,” toiled arduously for the good of this poorest of parishes, all the while celebrating the Christian faith in the most flamboyant and ritualistic Anglo-Catholic manner. Visiting preachers made a point of coming to the church, and among those was Clarence’s mentor from Cambridge, the Rev. Rowland Corbet.

Image, right. The reverend Rowland Corbet, rector of Stoke upon Tern, in 1862.  Son of Richard and Eleanor Corbet of Adderley Hall.

Corbet must have had something of the appeal of a snake charmer to have succeeded in tempting 12 young men to follow him to his newly-formed Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit (Societas Sanctus Spiriti) at Stoke-on-Tern, a tiny village in the depths of the Shropshire countryside. Corbet preceded them to Stoke-on-Tern, where his father, the lord of the manor, offered him the living at the parish church. The church itself having been ruined in a fire, Corbet set about rebuilding it with the help of the local population (including Thomas Dutton, the Shropshire giant) and the newly-arrived band of brothers, including Clarence.

Clarence lived at Stoke-on-Tern for nearly six years (1873-1878). He was housed with the other brothers in parish buildings, and they all continued to uphold the ideals and rituals of the Anglo-Catholic church. Clarence was a founding member and administrator of the Stoke-on-Tern Temperance Society at whose meetings he often performed, singing, playing the piano, reciting poems, and giving lectures. His lecture on “Wild Flowers” was particularly well-received.

But how did he spend the rest of his time in such a remote enclave? No doubt, he spent many hours in prayer and religious debate, and we can count on Clarence’s rambling throughout the countryside, botanizing. But the hours must have dragged and spiritual questions must have constantly plagued him. Corbet himself was beginning to have serious doubts about his mission, and that too may have affected Clarence who finally made the decision to leave Stoke-on-Tern. At the beginning of 1878 he headed out into the wider world, and began the process of turning his back on organized religion.Image, right. As for Corbet, he disbanded the brotherhood, became a mystic and a popular speaker, and married in 1884.


To download this article in pdf form for printing, please click here

To provide information to Valerie, please email her via

NEWS - Can you help with research?

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .


Between 2015 and 2018 there will be two ongoing research initiatives, the EU-funded Clarence Bicknell 2018 Research Project involving 6 institutes from 4 European countries and the work of Clarence Bicknell's biographer Valerie Browne Lester aided by members of the Clarence Bicknell Association including Susie and Marcus Bicknell, Helen Blanc-Francard, Christopher Chippindale and Graham Avery. If you have any source material on any of the topics covered on this web site or relating to Clarence's life, please email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or via In particular, we have doubts or need for further source material on the following details:

1) Clarence's education, including in Brighton like his brothers, before Trinity College Cambridge. Which school or which tutor?

2) At Cambridge Clarence Bicknell fell under the influence of religious thinkers including those in the Oxford Movement. Who were they? With which of them was he in contact?

3) At Walworth and thereafter in Stoke-upon-Tern as a curate, Clarence Bicknell was active in the Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit (Societas Sancti Spiritus) with Rowland Corbett and others. What can you tell us about this order, their beliefs and their influence?

4) Among those at Stoke-upon-Tern, and in Bordighera shortly therafter, were the following individuals. Do you have a diary by one of them or any source material which can shed liight on their beliefs and their relationship with Clarence Bicknell?

Rev Hubert George Morse (Clergy House, Walworth)
Rev Frederick William Puller (Clergy House, Walworth)
Rev John Going, Pastor of St Pauls Walworth
Rev Luke Rivington
Rev Rowland William Corbet (1839-1919), Walworth, “Oxford Movement”, founder of the Societas Sancti Spiritus (Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit)
Richard Meux Benson, founder with Corbet of the Giovanni Battista Society of Oxford
Rev Charles Egerton Fiennes Stafford at Stoke on Tern.
William Ding, Lichfield
Rev Percival Clementi-Smith, member of Societas Sancti Spiritus (Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit) and visited other churches with Clarence in 1874
Rev Arthur Heintz Paine
Mrs Russell Gurney (Lord Mount Temple)
George MacDonald (Lord Mount Temple), Scottish writer living in Bordighera

5) What was the extent of Clarence Bicknell's inheritance from his rich father Elhanan, how did he invest it, and can it really have lasted him all his life including investment in hostels for the poor in Walworth, Stoke-upon-Tern and Bordighera, the Museo Bicknell, the library and the Casa Fontanalba?

6) Who was Alice Campbell? Enzo Bernardini in 1971 and others refer to Clarence Bicknell's close friend Alice Campbell at his deathbed and buried alongside him at Tende. We have no trace of any original source material to this effect. Help us please./

7) Another myth might be that Clarence Bicknell died of mushroom poisoning. True or false? What source material, in an academic sense, can you provide?

8) Some considered him influential in the early days of the Esperanto movement and he participated in the Universal Congresses of Boulogne, Barcelona and Cambridge. Was he a leader with a role, or an ardent follower?

If you have source material please email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or Valerie Lester via


NEWS - update on this blog, and two appointments

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

I continue to post small articles of interest on my blog on the web site, below and above.  Over Christmas I was serialising Clarence's illustrated diary of his trip up the Nile in 1889-1890, and will continue to do so. Today I posted a gem about Clarence and his father's eminent and artistic guests, related to Mike Leigh's recent film Mr. Turner. We continue to progress positively on the Clarence Bicknell 2018 Research Project with 6 institutes round Europe and will report here and on the website when there are results we can talke about openly... hopefully the preparation for the application for EU funds in May 2015.


In the spirit of welcoming in a new year, and wishing you all success and good health, it is a good moment to announce two appointments to the committee of the Clarence Bicknell Association...

 Geoff Bicknell 04dab18

Geoff Bicknell has agreed to serve us as Treasurer, a post which had been open since the association's start. Not only is Geoff a successful business man in the UK, USA and many international markets, but he is also a Chartered Accountant (member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales and a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants Ontario Canada).  He has been Chief Financial Officer of AlphaPoint Technology, Inc. since May 23, 2012 and served as Chief Financial Officer of Savtira Corporation from September 2011 to December 2011.  He has held senior posts with DouglasBay Capital, Lucas, Ricardo, Anite, Maxima, Futuremedia, Northgate Information Solutions, Rockwell International and Trafficmaster.


Titus Bicknell 1b71ac2Titus Bicknell, my nephew, has joined the committee and will support us in his specialist areas of exhibitions, conferences, new media and the web. He is co-founder of pink ink and and co-principal of Museums and the Web LLC. Titus has been Chief Digital Officer at RLJ Entertainment (Miss Marple, Poirot, Foyle’s War) since the beginning of 2014, based near Washington DC. At various times Titus has been a film maker, Latin scholar, avid cyclist and advocate for the WordPress open source platform. He attended Winchester College in the UK, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he took a BA in English & Creative Writing in 1993 (Morehead scholar, Phi Beta Kappa, Gamma Kappa Alpha National Italian Honor Society). He received a Fulbright scholarship to study Latin at the Gregorian University in Rome and a British Academy grant to pursue a DPhil in 19th century Latin poetry at the University of York 1995-1999.


We thank both these gentlemen for their support and we (and they) will report on their progress and contributions as we go along.


NEWS - Clarence and his father's eminent and artistic guests

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

I often wonder what impression was made on the young Clarence Bicknell by the presence in his father Elhanan's house of Turner, Landseer, Roberts, Stanfield, Etty, Callcott, Landseer, De Wint, Muller, Phiz and Ruskin. Elhanan died in 1861 when Clarence was 9 so the image retained is one of Clarence peeping round a half-open door to see what was going on.

mr turnerThe Dulwich Society published in December 2014 an interesting piece by Brian Green pointing out that "a central figure - Elhanan Bicknell, has been excised in Mike Leigh’s award winning film Mr Turner (image right). As indeed has the subject of this article, the artist Stephen Poynzt Denning, a prominent member of the Herne Hill art set and friend of the Bicknell family." The article is available here to download and read at your leisure. It has the additional merit of mentioning Clarence... peeping round a half-open door. But bear in mind when reading this excerpt, below, that Clarence was 3 in 1845 so he would have reported on this or on another Count d'Orsay/Landseer event many years after they happened...

"According to Clarence, one of Bicknell’s sons, Turner, frequently dined at his father’s house, and objected to having his portrait taken. At one such dinner around Christmas 1845, “Count D’Orsay and Sir Edwin Landseer, devised a little plot to defeat the result of this antipathy. Whilst Turner unsuspiciously chatted with a guest over a cup of tea in the drawing-room, D’Orsay placed himself as a screen beside him to hide, when necessary, Landseer, sketching him at full length in pencil on the back of an envelope. Landseer gave what he had done to D’Orsay, who after re-drawing it at home and enlarged the figure to eight inches in height, sold it to J Hogarth, printseller in the Haymarket, for twenty guineas”. Sixteen copies of this print were included in the Bicknell sale at Christie’s in 1863 after Bicknell’s death."

From Clarence's Diary - Monday 16th December 1889 - Tombs of the Mamelooks

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

tombs of the mamelooks 1890Excerpts from Clarence Bicknell's diary "Italy and by steamer up the Nile River, 1889-1890" - No.10

In the morning we went to the great tomb area below the citadel toward the west, and the so-called Tombs of the Mamelooks (photo, right, taken in 1890) and the new one of the reigning family and rode through many bazaars and queer streets. In the afternoon we tried a little sketching among the Courts of the Khalifs and watched the sun setting behind the Sphinx and pyramids from the top of the rubbish heaps. Very interesting one there enormous rubbish heaps full of fragments of old pottery of the most brilliant colours and quaint designs.

Notes from the editor...

The family collection does not contain a sketch book with a sketch of the sun setting behind the Sphinx. It would be nice to find it one day. If you know where it might be, please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This is one of the shortest accounts of a day's activities in this diary. That's not a bad thing because Clarence can be quite verbose, can't he?

From Clarence's Diary - Sun Dec 15th 1889 - The Pyramids

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

Excerpts from Clarence Bicknell's diary "Italy and by steamer up the Nile River, 1889-1890" - No.9pyramids cb

The morning was so fine that we decided to start for the pyramids. So with plenty of luncheon including a bottle of good Egyptian wine, 10 oranges for 1 piastre , of great weight and delicious flavour, we started in a carriage at 8.20, a long and cold drive, the air clear but the wind from the north blowing fiercely. Part of the road runs along of the Nile where boats were discharging load of sugar and cane, and many camels were being loaded. There was a large concourse of people near the village of Gizeh (Giza, Ed.), Sunday being the market day or fair there. There the road runs straight under an avenue of Lebbek  trees at the foot of the pyramid plateau, and winds up to a small house close to the great pyramid. There we were at once beset by the Arabs (Bedouins ) who have the right to conduct visitors up to the top of the great pyramid, and whose services you are bound to accept.  A fee of 2/- each has to be paid to the sheik and ‘backshish’ to the men, and then nobody is content. We at once began the scramble, so often before discuted, for the whole casing of polished stone except a few at the very base having been long ago pulled down for building the 4 surfaces, now consist of great blocks of nummulitic  limestone from 1-4 feet high, arranged in steps.

Of course it would be easy enough to go up quietly, and I cannot conceive anyone being giddy on such broad steps, but the arabs seize both one’s hands, and a third pretends to push behind, and so they drag one up and hardly allow one time to rest. We however insisted on stopping several times. The climb did not seem to me very long and soon we were on the flat platform, 30 feet lower than the tomb was when completed. We stayed there a long time, but we were greatly worried by the men wanting us to buy things, talking incessantly about their ‘backshish’ &c. A boy came up too with a water bottle and leager for to wash your mouth out &c. &c. Going down jumping from one stone crusoe to another is scary enough. I worried my man by stopping to collect nummulites: arrived at the entrance to the interior, we decided to see that too, but at the bottom of the downward passage A. & D. declined to go on so B. and C. with 2 men each holding candles went on alone. At the beginning of the grand gallery there is a rads piece and the whole ascent is very slippery, as the little steps cut in the polished stone floors are so slight. In he Kings’ Chamber with its solitary red granite sarcophagus we lighted magnesium wire and remained a little while and then returned easily but very hot and dusty. We then paid the sheik 4/- each and 4/- backshish for the men – and finally the man who said he was the sheik but turned out to be the 2nd fiddle wanted something also. We had a tiptop lunch in the shade on the steps of the house, and then set off for an excursion in the neighbourhood, for all round the 3 larger pyramids are multitudinous small pyramids and their tombs.

The Sphinx was at first disappointing but gradually one recognised its colossal size and its strange beauty, which by degrees fascinates one – and there it has been, this great stone creature half beast half human looking out at the sunrise for who shall say how many thousand years. Close by is a temple of massive red granite & alabaster floor. We sat a long time and sketched a little, and then walked about the 2nd Pyramid of Capluen, then I stecked with a pleasant and intelligent Arab up one of the great ruined causeways and crawled into several pariled tombs, with the cartouche of Khufu on them, and saw the well wherein in which the summary was deposited and many inscripteries.

A Helix was abundant out on the sand and one alive little plant here and there, now in seed. We saw before leaving the two untouched casing stones of the pyramid in situ, wonderful in the masonry. They knew how to build in those days. We were home by dark.

Notes from the editor...

   The image here is the relevant page from Bicknell's diary, with his field sketch of the pyramids. On a desktop computer screen the diary page (180x230mm) will be about life size.

   Although the Piastre was replaced by the pound in 1834, it continued to be used as the word for a cent or a penny i.e. 100 piastres to the £.

  Albizia lebbeck is a species of Albizia, native to Indomalaya, New Guinea and Northern Australia and widely cultivated and naturalised in other tropical and subtropical regions. English names for it include lebbeck, lebbek tree, flea tree, frywood, koko and woman's tongues tree. The latter name is a play on the sound the seeds make as they rattle inside the pods. Being one of the most widespread and common species of Albizia worldwide, it is often simply called "siris" though this name may refer to any locally common member of the genus. It is a tree growing to a height of 18–30 m tall with a trunk 50 cm to 1 m in diameter. The leaves are bipinnate, 7.5–15 cm long, with one to four pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 6–18 leaflets. The flowers are white, with numerous 2.5–3.8 cm long stamens, and very fragrant. The fruit is a pod 15–30 cm long and 2.5-5.0 cm broad, containing six to twelve seeds.

  A nummulite is a large lenticular fossil, characterized by its numerous coils, subdivided by septa into chambers. They are the shells of the fossil and present-day marine protozoan Nummulites, a type of foraminiferan. Nummulites commonly vary in diameter from 1.3 cm (0.5 inches) to 5 cm (2 inches) and are common in Eocene to Miocene marine rocks, particularly around southwest Asia and the Mediterranean (e.g. Eocene limestones from Egypt). Fossils up to 6 inches wide are found in the Middle Eocene rocks of Turkey.2 They are valuable as index fossils.The ancient Egyptians used nummulite shells as coins and the pyramids were constructed using limestone that contained nummulites. It is not surprising then that the name "Nummulites" is a diminutive form of the Latin nummulus meaning "little coin", a reference to their shape.


From Clarence's Diary - Sat Dec 14th 1889 - The Tombs of the Khalifs

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

Excerpts from Clarence Bicknell's diary "Italy and by steamer up the Nile River, 1889-1890" - No.8

Off in a carriage at 8.20 with a horrible wind and dust to Heliopolis : nothing remains but one granite obelisk, of the once famed City of the Sun God, whence came the priests of On: but very beautiful  it is standing up alone in the middle of the fields, near the village of Matareeyeh: we made out much of the inscription by the help of the guidebook and at any rate if I learn nothing more let me remember that the builder of it was Rah Neperska of the 12th Dynasty date about 2433 BC or 3000 BC and his royal name is    Osirtasen 1st and the 2 cartouches of these are…   and …    

We did not care to go and see the Virgins here, but instead visited the Ostrich Farm by a quarter of an hour’s donkey ride over the desert. The first thing my donkey did was to tumble down so of course I was pitched over his head – so I said bad donkey to the boy and jumped up on another. It was very interesting. There were 500 birds some 6 years old, some 5, some 4 and some just born. In some of the pairs the male birds were sitting on the eggs in the sand, and we frightened them up. At least the keep did tho’ he was afraid to go very near as the beast looked very savage and opened its mouth wide at him. And it was a beautiful sight to see the bird spread out his great black wings and settle down again over his large pile of eggs and one little one just out of the shell. Their hens lay eggs in the laying season every other day, and when there are about thirty they sit on them and as far as I understand, but many must be hatched artificially. The farm belongs to a French company, and pays well.

david roberts tomb of the khalifsWe drove home to lunch at 12h30, but at 1.30 our dear donkeys were ready, the strong one of yesterday for me, and off we rode through the town and out the other side and then through myriads of tombs till we reached the open desert and saw before us the strange and lovely sight  the ‘tombs of the Khalifs’ with mosques and their minarets and cupolas all dotted about over the yellow sand. The beauty of this sight fairly took away our breath: we wanted to stop and sketch every moment. We first entered the tomb of Sultan Berkook (died 1398) falling into series: then that of Railbec and several others which I cannot attempt to denote. Then we rode about the desert among the miracles of architectural beauty and dismounted and sketched and finally climbed up to the top of the rubbish hills where are the old windmills, from whence one gazes over the whole city at one’s feet with countless minarets, the broad Nile, the pyramids and the desert beyond and on the other side the desert again with all the tombs and the red and yellow cliffs of the Mojattam hills. These palisades and lines of the desert and the desert hills are indescribably lovely: all pale yellow and pink. I have never seen anything approaching this scene. Below us in the town was a fair with roundabouts, acrobats &c., flags and carpets, and music and a tremendous crowd of people. We rode back in the dusk among the excited people and the lighted streets, a strange sight indeed: every hour it seemed more extraordinary.


Notes from the editor...

Heliopolis was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, the capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. It is now found at the north-east edge of Cairo. The ancient Egyptian cult center Junu, named "On" in the Hebrew bible, was renamed Heliopolis by the Greeks in recognition of the fact that the sun god Ra (Helios in Greek) presided there. Junu is mentioned in the Pyramid Text as the "House of Ra" (Wikipedia).

The image on the right is “One of the Tombs of the Caliphs, Cairo” c.1849 by Clarence Bicknell’s brother-in-law David Roberts R.A. Later excerpts from Clarence's diary will be illustrated with his drawings from the same pages.

From Clarence's Diary - Fri Dec 13th 1889 - Old Cairo

Written by Marcus Bicknell on .

Clarence Bicknell: Italy and by steamer up the Nile River, 1889-1890

Excerpts from Clarence's diary, no.7

Friday Dec 13th 1889 in Old Cairo

We really began a thorough sight seeing. At 9 with a dragoman we all started on donkeys, such strong good little donkeys! But mine set off galloping I couldn’t stop him, my stirrup broke and I thought every moment I would be pitched over his head or tumble off, but I clung on like grim death and survived!

We all 5 rode about the citadel, but there was a wind and sort of sand and desert storm and we could hardly see anything. We visited the splendid new mosque of Mohamed Ali with its multitudinous hanging lamps and gorgeous carpets: but most beautiful in the great courtyard and fountains of oriental alabaster. The man at the entrance put large slippers over our boots and then keeping our hats on, in we went. After that, remounting the donkeys we went to the glorious old mosque of Sultan Hassan with its wrought brass doors and lovely fountains. Then to various bazaars where we bought slippers, rosaries, scents etc. It is immense fun donkey riding in Cairo: howling dervishes 1893the beasts are so well-behaved and obedient, and in the compression and throng of the narrowest streets among people, carts, horses and camels one has absolutely no difficulties: they are beautifully kept and have lovely embroidered and most comfortable saddles. We paid 2/- a piece for the whole morning. Our dragoman was a splendid fellow, very pleasant and has the reputation at the hotel for honesty and experience, and he remembers well my brother (see notes below *** - Ed.) who made the pilgrimage to Mecca about 20 years ago.

After lunch we took a carriage and drove first to see the performance of the “howling dervishes” (see the image alongside from the Illustrated London News dated 1893 “English People Cairo Visiting Howling Dervishes - Mosque Mohammed Ali Tezel - Ed.) and then we went to Old Cairo, a very picturesque and interesting town. Then we saw the ancient mosque of Amer with an immense court and a solitary palm of great height near the fountain (see drawing by Clarence in yesterday's posting - Ed.).

Then we saw the Coptic village and church, very dirty and dark. I watched English and French and some of the young Copts who were there, and saw the children at school learning Arabic and French. We saw the people making all sorts of clay water bottles of pretty shapes: Beggars abounds everywhere and the Copts are almost worse than the others. We crossed the Nile in a ferry and visited the Nilometer on the island of Rhoda and ate delicious oranges in the garden: but the wind was furious and the air filled with a blinding dust, so that we saw little else but the great broad Nile, ½ mile across I should think, with numberless picturesque boats on the shore, and the forests of palm trees towards the desert, just visible in the thick mist.

The dust in the road is awful, and though there are Lebluek and Sycamore trees, and ‘Gagia’s and others on is very little sheltered. We passed enormous rubbish heaps mountain high everywhere and then returned into the most wonderful; streets of old houses and mosques without end. Then Giacomo and I, as it rained and now dark, which it does very suddenly, went for a 1½ hours! Stroll in the streets, where the lamps were being lighted in front of the crowded shops and we peered into the barbers and arab caffèes and all sorts of strange places. After dinner we bought photos. Sundance mats, stuffed lizards, Nile electric fish, fly flaps etc. The streets are always full of life and colour; figures lie or sit on the pavements or huddled up under doorways: wild looking arabs in “white” black sundancers, many of them once slaves are everywhere, young men in a gorgeous array of embroidery pass by every moment, and one is never weary. The photos are a model of cheapness, 4½ francs per dozen.

Notes from the editor...

A dragoman was an interpreter, translator, and official guide between Turkish, Arabic, and Persian-speaking countries and polities of the Middle East and European embassies, consulates, vice-consulates and trading posts. A dragoman had to have a knowledge of Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and European languages. (Wikipedia)

The great Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha or Alabaster Mosque is a mosque situated in the Citadel of Cairo in Egypt and commissioned by Muhammad Ali Pasha between 1830 and 1848. (Wikipedia)

The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is a massive Mamluk era mosque and madrassa located near the Citadel in Cairo. Its construction began 757 AH/1356 CE with work ending three years later "without even a single day of idleness". (Wikipedia)

*** Herman Bicknell, Elhanan’s 3rd child, (1830-1875), an FRAS, British surgeon, orientalist, and linguist, became a distinguished oriental scholar and traveller. He was the first Englishman to make the pilgrimage to Mecca totally undisguised. He was a passionate mountaineer who made more than one ascent of Vesuvius during an eruption, and survived a serious accident on the Matterhorn, later to make one of the early ascents of that mountain. “All the European travelers who made the Pilgrimage to Mecca, from De Varthema to Hurgronje, had dressed in native costume and concealed their original nationality. The first European to enter the Holy City without disguising himself in any way was an English Muslim named Herman Bicknell. Unfortunately, although Bicknell must have had some intriguing encounters, dressed as he was in trousers and boiled shirt, until he put off his English identity with the assumption of the Ihram, he has left no account of his Hajj. But he is important in any survey of Western visitors to Mecca, for he marks a turning point in the relations of the West with the world of Islam. He is representative of the increasing number of Europeans who embraced Islam in the latter half of the 19th century—and embraced it sincerely.” (from The Lure Of Mecca by Paul Lunde )The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As, also called the Mosque of Amr, was originally built in 641–642 AD, as the center of the newly founded capital of Egypt, Fustat (now Cairo) (Wikipedia).

Coptic Cairo is a part of Old Cairo which encompasses the Babylon Fortress, the Coptic Museum, the Hanging Church, the Greek Church of St. George and many other Coptic churches and historical sites. (Wikipedia).

Rhoda Island or Rawdah Island, is an island located on the Nile in central Cairo. The El-Manial District, and the Al-Manyal Palace Museum and gardens, are located on the island. The island has one of the oldest Islamic buildings in Egypt, the Nilometer on its southern tip. (Wikipedia)

In Greek mythology, Gaia was the primordial Earth-Goddess from whom all life sprang. A Gagia or Gaia tree is not specifically referenced in sources.

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