Photo research: Alberto Pelloux and Clarence Bicknell

Skribita de Marcus Bicknell on .

bicknell pelloux mountain photo annotated cOur assumption has been that the well-known photo of Bicknell and Pelloux together was taken in the high mountains, maybe in the Mercantour above the Vallée des Merveilles and Casterino.

Not a bit of it; the gentlemen are taking an afternoon stroll and are low in the heat of the Italian Riviera, just a couple of kilometres from the Hanbury Gardens which fall into the Mediterranean Sea between Ventimiglia and Menton. Luca Barale spotted the truth of the location and wrote to me in April 2021:

"Here is an annotated version of the photograph. The church of Mortola Superiore and the woody hill to its left is quite well recognizable. I do not think the sea to be actually visible in the image, (the furthest thing visible is the snowy Mont Agel ridge), though the shooting point is actually very close to the sea, just a few hundred metres as the crow flies."

You can download and read the full text of Marcus's article about the photo, with other images, by clicking here.

Luca Barale's article in the journal of the Italian Geological Society was published today at

Clarence Bicknell and Esperanto

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Clarence Bicknell and Esperanto. The ESF (Esperantic Studies Foundation) has published a blog of mine in English at be an image of 1 person, flower and outdoors

For you Esperanto-lovers and -readers, the same text is in Esperanto at

Thank you Angela Tellier for the opportunity to write them and have them published. More at

The family Bottacco and Clarence Bicknell

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The family Bottacco and Clarence Bicknell – how did they know each other?

Rhea Bottacca Sanseverino, her husband Leopoldo Bottacco and their daughter Rita Bottacco

To see the images mentioned please click here to download the pdf

Edoardo Fumio of Florence contacted us on 6th April 2021 to ask for the original pictures from the "Clarence Bicknell’s Casa Fontanalba Visitors’ Book” which showed the entries in the handwriting of Rita Bottacco and her mother Rhea Bottacco in August 1917. Rita was Edoardo’s great grandmother.

We responded affirmatively and sent the images requested. We are pleased that our publishing these works by Clarence Bicknell on the internet has enabled him to locate his ancestors' names and get in touch with us.  The two pages from the Casa Fontanalba Visitors' Book are the page with the signatures of Rita and Rhea, and the corresponding watercolour. The two ladies appear to have stayed two nights with Clarence Bicknell, from 22nd to 24th Aug 1917. This would have given Rhea time to walk up into the Val Fontanalba for the day of 23rd August.

We also informed Edoardo Fumio that we found both ladies in Clarence's Book of Guests in Esperanto in which he only entered people he liked and whose initials he painted on the walls of the Casa Fontanalba. The words about each lady are written in Esperanto and I have on file the English translation ... 

"1917 - Srino Rhea Bottacca Sanseverino kiu logas en Bordighera, gentile venis de S. Dalmazzo viziti min, kaj supreniris la valon ‘Fontanalba’ por vidi la rokgravurajojn"

"1917 - Mrs Rhea Bottacca Sanseverino, who lives in Bordighera, kindly came from S. Dalmazzo to visit me, and went up to the ‘ Val Fontanalba’ to see the rock carvings"

1917 - Fraulino Rita Bottacco, filino de Srino Bottazzo. Dum longa tempo, si estis tre sindonema flegistino en hospitalo por vunditaj soldatoj en Cremona.

"1917 - Miss Rita Bottacco, daughter of Mrs Bottacco. For a long time she was a very devoted nurse in a hospital for wounded soldiers in Cremona."

We are hioping that Edoardo Fumio will show the images to his grandmother to see what memories are triggered. We have permitted him to publish them on social media or the internet, giving some credit like "Images are courtesy of the Bicknell family,".

We asked Edoardo

“What else do you know about Rita and Rhea? How did they know Clarence? What was Rhea's occupation, and what did Rita do apart from nursing soldiers in Cremona? If you could write a piece about the two ladies I would be pleased to publish it in Italian and French on our web site and to tell people in St Dalmas. Please also tell me about yourself, where you live and your occupation (Arch... are you an architect of houses or commercial buildings?). All this is very interesting to us and to those that love Clarence's work.”

Edoardo replied

“I attached a portrait of Rita that my grandmother has in her house of Florence. My grandmother unfortunately has few memories about her mother Rita, because she died in Crema in 1935 and my grandmother was only 2 years old. But everything she knows about her was told by her father, Rita's husband Antonio Vimercati Bonzi. Antonio is my great grandfather.

“I did not know how they knew Mr. Clarence Bicknell, but I found that Leopoldo Bottacco, Rhea's husband was an A.D. of SOCIETÀ ANONIMA IMMOBILIARE DI BORDIGHERA. In the pictures that I attach is written that Leopoldo Bottacco stayed in Bordighera, via Romana n. 39, where there is the Museo Clarence Bicknell. Maybe you could help me to understand the connection about Mr Clarence and Leopold.

“From 1970 my family is moved to Florence, I'm Born in Florence in 1991 and I'm an architect of interior design for home and commercial. I'm very interested about the past of my family and of my heritage. I think that we are a part of our past.”

I also found two references to Mr Bottacco and the company involved with the Kursaal in Bordighera (see web links next page).

The questions remain… how did Clarence know the Bottacco family? What made the two ladies close enough to Clarence that he put them in the Esperanto book for special friends? What was the reason for the domiciliation of Bottacco’s real estate company at the same address as the Museo Bicknell?

Marcus Bicknell

7th April 2021

Search notes from Marcus 7 April 2021…

Leopoldo Bottacco  stamp collector

Leopoldo Bottacco military colonel

Reference to a Bottaco (Bottacco?) and the Kursaal of Bordighera

Reference to Bottacco in the Belgian court papers on the financial affairs of the Kursaal of Bordighera

Reference to Bottacco Carlo

Who was Alice Campbell? Was it Eliza Campbell?

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Eliza Campbell

In the photo album of the George MacDonald family[1], friends of Clarence in Bordighera, there are three photos of the Campbell family of Tullichewan which is in Dunbartonshire in Scotland. Judging from the photos, the album (apparently "created" by Lewis Carroll the writer (aka Charles Dodgson) is likely to have been from before 1880 when the MacDonalds settled in Bordighera. The only person named is Eliza Campbell who is likely to be Eliza Campbell  born18 Nov 1850 in Glasgow died 10 Sep 1932 daughter of James Campbell, of Tullichewan,   b. 31 Mar 1823 in Tullichewan, d. 14 Aug 1901 and Janet Black,   b. Abt 1827, died d. 10 Feb 1907. James has four other offspring none named Alice. Eliza could have married and might be Eliza Gildea (

Shown on

Marcus found out that Eliza’s paternal grandfather William (James’s father) could be called a railway owner, one of the parameters recalled by those in Bordighera who remember the presence of Alice Campbell.

“On leaving Balloch Station (0.4 chains from back here) Forth & Clyde trains whistled twice and traversed the double track Balloch branch for 15 chains, before forking left at Forth & Clyde Junction. The castellated towers of early 19th century Tullichewan Castle, the imposing country seat of William Campbell, Glasgow drapery magnate, local laird and Forth & Clyde director until his death in 1864, appeared on a wooded height to the west.” (Back Track magazine, May 2010, article on the Forth & Clyde Junction)

Marcus postulates that Italians, in pronouncing the name Eliza, would make a sound very similar to Alice which both in Italian and French has the emphasis on the second syllable (not on the first as in English) and with the makings of a third syllable “-ce”. If this is the case then it possible that the Italians who remember Alice Campbell, “daughter” of a railway owner, were in fact hearing Eliza Campbell.

As more material gets digitised and put on the internet, so there will be more opportunities to identify "Alice" Campbell with more certainty. I will keep my eye open.


[1] Discovered by Susie Bicknell in March 2021, the photo album having been digitised and made available by the Yale University Library in the previous two years.

Bicknell family in the Merveilles 1988

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1988 was the year when I, Marcus, first organised a trip for family members to the Vallée des Merveilles, on the Italian-French border looking over the Mediterranean. This is the place, the rock art and the botany made famous by great great grand uncle Clarence Bicknell who died (naturally) up in these mountains in 1918.

I think of it today because I have just received a copy of a photo I had never seen before… several close family members and me (looking rather youthful, just 40 years old) posing for the camera up in the Merveilles. If you would like to know more about the others on the trip and in the photo, please let me know (Tiu ĉi retpoŝtadreso estas protektata kontraŭ spamrobotoj. Vi devas ebligi Ĝavaskripton por vidi ĝin.) and I’ll add the info here.

The local dignatories had organised all manner of Clarence events including a terrific exhibition in the nearby Musée de Merveilles on the French side for which the poster (below) was memorable, below. I have a high definition jpeg of this which I can send to any Bicknell free-of-charge for reproduction.

If you are ever in France or Italy and go on the Clarence pilgrimage (it’s well worth while) don’t miss the museum he created which still bears his name, the Museo Bicknell, in Bordighera on the Italian side.

Uncle Peter Bicknell, who gave seven of Clarence’s extraordinary vellum-bound albums of watercolours to the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, England, in that year, presented at a seminar at the Museo Bicknell a paper on Clarence… a paper which became the focal point for the intensive research into Clarence, the creation of the website in 2013, the production of the 18-minute film and the biography MARVELS – The Life of Clarence Bicknell by Valerie Lester for his anniversary in 2018. Peter’s paper on Clarence can be downloaded in pdf here.

1988 was also the publication date of one of the many papers about the rock engravings of the Merveilles, 11,000 of which Clarence discovered, traced and catalogued, Rock carvings of the Merveilles by Louis Barral and Suzanne Simone, Monaco, in pdf here.

You can read much more at Clarence’s web site and you can join the Clarence Bicknell Association there.


Saxifraga florulenta - Clarence's Ancient King

Skribita de Marcus Bicknell on .

saxifraga florulenta clarence bicknell genoaThe Ancient King, l’Antico Re, was the name used by Clarence Bicknell  and other botanists of the time between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries for Saxifraga florulenta. Botanists and enthusiasts have always spent many patient hours in search of this rarity, and forever will. It is wonderful and exciting to find it in bloom.

saxifraga florulentaClarence's watercolour (image left) is in the collection at the University of Genoa where 3,428 of his botanical watercolours are stored alongside 10,146 pressed flower samples (herbaria). We thank Professor Mauro Mariotti for the copy and the reproduction rights

We are pleased to publish in English and Italian today a short article on the subject of Saxifraga florulenta by Elisabetta Massardo, photographer, mountain walker, amateur botanist and Companion of the Clarence Bicknell Association. You can download the paper (containing both the English and Italian versions) at the following link:

Click here: Saxifraga florulenta by Elisabetta Massardo 2021

The Ancient King, l'Antico Re, così venne chiamata da Clarence Bicknell e dagli altri botanici dell'epoca tra fine Ottocento e inizio Novecento. I botanici e gli appassionati hanno sempre speso molte ore pazienti alla ricerca di questa rarità. È meraviglioso e emozionante trovarla fiorita. Leggete il breve articolo della nostra amica Elisabetta Massardo con le sue foto e un acquerello di Clarence.

 L'Ancien Roi, "The Ancient King", était le nom utilisé par Clarence Bicknell et d'autres botanistes de la fin du XIXe et du début du XXe siècles. Les botanistes et les passionnés ont toujours passé de nombreuses heures à la recherche de cette rareté, et le feront à jamais. Il est merveilleux et excitant de le trouver la plante en fleur. Lisez le court article de notre amie Elisabetta Massardo avec ses photos, et une aquarelle de Clarence Bicknell de son Ancien Roi.

saxifraga florulenta 2 stages

Clarence’s Flowering Plants… scan available on Google Books.

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There is now a full PDF of Clarence’s Flowering Plants… available on Google Books free of charge.

Flowering Plants Plate 44 colour c correctedMy thanks to Max Leonard for letting me know. Indeed that is new to me and I am posting it to web and Facebook right now. The images are not in colour of course, but I have two originals and scans of many of the plates if anyone needs them.

Before Clarence's Time - Dr Henry in the Merveilles

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Gallica headingMax Leonard, mountain research, biker and Clarence Bicknell fan, write today to tell us "I found a digital copy of Dr Henry’s Ancien Glacier Métamorphosé en Monuments Carthaginois (1877), which was referenced by Clarence, in Gallica – I’m not sure when it was digitised, but nobody else seems to have found it, so I’m guessing it’s fairly recently. I’ve used Gallica before, they are digitising a huge amount and new things are always coming up."

The article is entitled "Une Excursion au Lac des Merveilles". Written in 1877, it was a year before Clarence first came to Bordighera and some 20 years before he found the Merveilles and made them his summer passion for 12 years to 1906.

Here’s a link:

Thank you Max

Clarence's Alps - the Cima Marta and the military buildings

Skribita de Marcus Bicknell on .

martaNew member Max Leonard writes...

My writing about glaciers and the Merveilles will be a chapter in a book I’m writing for Bloomsbury, but maybe we can extract it or something for your site! There are plenty of interesting journal articles being written about the natural landscape and the engravings.

By the way, I was reading Margaret Berry’s diary you transcribed and posted as a PDF, and I can shed some light on a query you have/had (p7). The ‘Marta’ (and ‘Maiter’) she refers to is the Cima Marta (2,138m), in the Marguareis. This is south of Monte Saccarello and north of Monte Torragio, and the summit (AKA le Cime de Marta) is actually in France now.

However, the Balcone di Marta, near but not at the summit, is a ridge upon which are built several 19th-century military buildings – the Barracamenti di Marta. There’s a little on it here on the CAI Bordighera site.

I have done quite a bit of research on the military history of the border region. Briefly, Napoleon III supported Vittorio Emmanuele II (of the Duchy of Savoy and last King of Sardinia) in his bid to unify Italy. For this support, VEII ceded Savoia and the County of Nice to the French (ratified in a popular vote in 1860). Though the neighbours started off amicably enough, as Italy grew in power and confidence, the French realised they had a long undefended border to the east. And that border was a fudge: Tenda was a strategic jewel, which VEII had insisted on keeping, and Napoleon III had granted him continued possession of some of his favourite hunting ground around La Brigue (I think). As far as I understand it, this is in part why in Clarence’s day the border bisected the Roya valley twice (and still does once), when it would make far more sense that it follow the watershed ridge on one side or other. So in the 1870s, both sides began fortifying marta militarythis relatively new frontier – you can see the French works on the Massif de l'Authion, Col de Brouis, Monte Grosso and Mont Barbonnet (Sospel), Mont Agel (behind Monaco) and Fort de la Revère (Èze). In Italy, there are all the barracks at the Colle di Tenda, and then further south at Sacarello, Marta and the Colle di Nava. I think the French were more concerned that the Italians would try to take the county of Nice back than the Italians were that the French would invade. Indeed, Mussolini did make irredentist noises in the 1920s, prompting the construction of the Alpine extension to the Maginot Line. I wrote about that in Bunker Research.

Since that time, I’ve explored a lot more on the Italian side, including a lot of the old salt roads, but know relatively little about the Vallo Alpino. However, on my trip to the Merveilles last September I did scramble to three of the Italian positions, on the Baisse de Valaurette and in the Minière valley itself.

Clarence in Bordighera - women...

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I spoke about Clarence's circle of friends in my paper Clarence Bicknell – in Private. ( which I delivered in the Museo Bicknell, Bordighera on Saturday 20th July 2019. I mention them again here because a researcher asked me today about alice Campbell and I am happy to oblige.

Clarence’s life in Bordighera and at Casterino was full of women, right from the start. Clarence fell with enthusiasm into the thrall and into the social circle of not only Mrs Fanshawe (with whom he lodged) but also of her daughter Rosa Fanshawe Walker, who like her mother had been widowed in the previous few years. Rosa was an essential part of Clarence’s life in Bordighera; hardly a day goes by in Clarence’s first two years in Bordighera without Rosa being mentioned.

Louise Jopling, who stayed at the Villa Ruffini, was a painter, the first woman to be admitted to the Royal Society of British Artists, and a supporter of women’s suffrage. She was interested in botany and walking in the countryside, so she and Clarence were naturally drawn to each other.

Margaret Berry, née Serecold, was the wife of Clarence’s nephew Edward Berry. Clarence loved spending time with her and she was a great support to him in various ways. She brought with her a fund of humour, warmth, generosity and a sense of family; and she loved her new uncle dearly.

Nora and Linda Bicknell, daughters of Clarence’s brother Percy, began showing up at the Villa Rosa on a regular basis. Nora evidently thought highly of Bordighera, and made her home and her living there for several years, working as a clerk in Edward Berry’s bank, and she had her own business as a photographer and maker of greeting cards and calendars, often donating the profits from her sales to charity. She and Clarence later travelled together.

Esperanto caused Clarence to spend more and more time in the company of Rosa Junck. Born in 1850 in Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic), Mrs Junck, née Bilek or Bilekova, had arrived in Bordighera in 1890.

Clarence had been hunting high and low for the perfect botanical pin with which to skewer his specimens when he first met Ellen Willmott, probably in 1901 at La Mortola, the home of Sir Thomas Hanbury whose impressive gardens cascaded down a cliff just outside Ventimiglia.

Mystery surrounds the Scottish lady whom Clarence first met in 1883 and saw again in 1897. Hard as we try, we cannot identify her, but it is possible that she is the Alice Campbell, whose relationship with Clarence is still much whispered about in Bordighera. But we have researched the story intensively and you can read the results at alice_campbell.pdf

Unlike the story of Alice Campbell, no mystery surrounds Baroness Helene von Taube, thanks to a lengthy and loving correspondence. Clarence met the amateur botanist Helene von Taube in late 1908 or early 1909, when she came to Bordighera from Weimar seeking warmth and sunshine for her ailing husband, Baron Otto von Taube.


Review of MARVELS by Malcolm Borthwick

Skribita de Marcus Bicknell on .

Very insightful and interesting review by Malcolm Borthwick, an old friend through Susie's father:

I have just finished Marvels and enjoyed the read very much. The construction of the book is clever and given the subject there are moments when the tale reads at a quicker pace that others.

The setting of the Victorian zeit geist is a well trodden one and amply explained. But quickly the unusual aspects start to assert themselves hence quickens the readers interest. To make a fortune out of whaling (trade) means that Elnahan would qualify as a gentleman, albeit a nouveau one, but certainly not regarded at the time as upper class in that stifling Victorian way of society's hierarchy. But then both his religious background and artistic tastes immediately set him apart from the establishment. This individualism and wealth and the suggestion of Gladstonian liberalism in the background sets the scene for Clarence’s interesting background and ultimate irritation with the chattering classes of the day. The early chapter on religious revival and the Oxford movement I found the slowest reading but have to concede it is important to understand to appreciate Clarences future and maybe even his life long bachelordom.

The lack of joining the educational mainstream for social advancement (i.e. public school) to pursue power via politics or capitalism to end up as a wealthy young man in the natural sciences really fires up the readers interest. No clogs to clogs in 3 generations for Clarence.

One curious omission seems to me his lack of interest in what was going on in the UK given the passion for botany, developments of botanical gardens, arboreta et al at the time. All the more so with his connection to the Hanbury developments next door in the Mediterranian. For wasnt it a Miss Hanbury who made the unhappy marriage to Osgood Mackenzie who developed the extraordinary garden at Poolewe in Wester Ross which survives to this day. At the same time fortunes from trade (werent the Hanburys brewers) were develping arboreta and gardens in Scotland which had it’s own prestigious Botanical Garden in Edinburgh. The Balfours at Dawyck (South Arican traders) or the Youngers (brewers again) at Benmore, near Dunoon were all keen botanical developers given the gulf stream climate and substantial rainfall in Scotlands west, like Poolewe. To this day these gardens and arboreta are not only extensive but fasciatimg to visit. I wonder how they passed him by.

With the age of steam communications all of these develpments were much easier to reach than going to Ceylon, for instance. Even the West Highland line took you to within a mere gig ride of Mackenzie’s garden at Poolewe.

The endearing quality of Clarence is his boredom and prejudice with the chattering classes. But also his classless reationships with is employees. Luigi’s tribute makes a wonderful ending this remarkable life and the final demise makes a poignant end. One is left with a feeling of a life well led and he was surely a proto socialist in the best meaning of the word.

So Bravo to Valerie Lester and all of you for bringing Clarence to us in the 21st century. It must have been a fascinating project.



Happy Christmas from Clarence - a Christmas rose

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card christmas rose cBicknell's watercolour study of a Christmas rose (helleborus viridis) is part of a large collection of his botanical designs of the Fitzwilliam Museum. Bicknell, an alumna of Trinity College, had an impressive array of interests and in addition to being a member of the clergy, an amateur artist and botanist, also found time to write, and to study archaeology and Esperanto.

You can follow numerous postings of images like this on social media:



Casterino closed by floods - "Le Monde" 25 Nov 2020

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« Là-haut, c’est “Shining” » : quatre irréductibles de Castérino, dans l’arrièrepays niçois, se préparent à un hiver coupé du monde

REPORTAGE | Les dégâts provoqués par la tempête Alex, début octobre, ont rendu très difficile l’accès à Castérino. A l’arrivée de la neige, ce bourg touristique de la vallée des Merveilles, dans les Alpes-Maritimes, sera isolé jusqu’au printemps. Quatre villageois ont fait le choix de rester.

Télécharger le reportage   Download the complete report in French

Butterflies, Bicknell and Art Nouveau - new paper from Elena Grafova

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Weigner Nature Studies and Compositions 1905We are pleased to publish a new paper by Elena Grafova, and ardent student of Clarence Bicknell, and a Graduate Student of the Russian Research Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage named after D.S.Likhachev, Russia, Moscow, Bersenevskaya, 20. The paper examines the role of the science of butterflies in the creation of the artistic images of Art Nouveau.

Download the article now at

Elena summarises her paper thus... "Studies of the natural world in the artistic and scientific aspects of the observations of the English naturalist and artist Clarence Bicknell, allow us to reveal an understanding of the contexts of European and Russian art Nouveau. His books on the flora of the Flower Riviera (Italy), the butterfly collection by Watkins & Doncaster which he acquired from naturalists from London, his herbariums and watercolor albums, in which he displayed the flora of Liguria (Italy) and gave detailed descriptions of plants, allow us to understand the way of thinking of artists and researchers in the field of botany and entomology of the time of «art nouveau»".

See also her paper on the Hanbury Gardens, Bicknell and the cultural impact.

All our research papers are at

BikeBick - La Ciclovia Bicknell from Bordighera to Limone

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BickBike cropWe warmly support this initiative to encourage people to use the cyle and walking path from Borighera up into the mountains... 80 kilometres of fresh air and the beauty of the mountains which Clarence knew so well. We have offered to the organisers and to Mayor of Bordighera Vittorio Ingenito, whatever help we cna usefully give.

 On foot or by bicycle from Bordighera to Limone in the footsteps of Bicknell

From the newspaper Il Secolo XIX, 26th October 2020

In the footsteps of Clarence Bicknell looking at the tourist revival of the west. The Ingenito regime in Bordighera has started a project, shared at the tourism table together with Confesercenti, the natural trail that runs from the coast to Limone Piemonte, which can only be accessed by bicycle or on foot. Eighty kilometers that from Montenero, passing through Moncene, Bajardo, Monte Ceppo, Rifugio Allavena, Colle di Sanson, la Brigue, Casterino, Tende, Baisse dellOur-Colle di Tenda, is partly alternative to the Via del Sale.

Several times the botanist Clarence took parts of the route for his research, merging archaeological studies with botanising in the nearby Maritime Alps, discoveries that made it possible for him to create the first museum in western Liguria in Bordighera in 1888.

The Bordighera administration will invest 33,000 euros in the project for now. "In Montenero we are already preparing the new bike park” - comments the Mayor of Bordighera Vittorio Ingenito – “The new project will enhance an important heritage that binds us to Piedmont and France". The Bicknell Cycle Route, proposed by the Tourist Comm Service, a consortium of Confesercenti, will be made official in March 2021 with twelve video clips broadcast on YouTube and published on various social networks and specific portals. The first edition of ride will be held in July 2021 and collateral events will be organized between March and October, including an exhibition in Bordighera and Tende (France). "In the programme - explains the council - is work, a thematic shop with schools" "The administration asked that the signs placed along the entire route bear the words Progetto Città di Bordighera to ensure a promotional benefit to the city. The initiative is being run by an ad hoc team in the town hall.

Ingenito and Confesercenti are ready to collaborate with other Municipalities so far unaware of the route and in two days of information they will present the proposal to the city (technical support will be provided by the Liguria region agency).


See also

In Clarence's Time - Esperanto Congresses

Skribita de Marcus Bicknell on .

esperanto bordighera image1Clarence Bicknell, from 1897, was devoted to Esperanto as a universal language which would bring peoples of the world together.

He attended the first three Esperanto congresses (Bouogne 1903), Geneva (1906) and Cambridge (1907)), then Cracow in 1912 and Paris in 1914. By then, the rumblings of World War would have dominated the thoughts of the delegates and would frustrated their ideals.

We enjoyed this charming YouTube video of the Congresses sent to us by Helen Blanc-Francard. Thanks!

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